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Environmental Monitoring and Waste Management

environment May 2, 2022


Environmental Monitoring | Credit: thedailynewnation

When harmful materials are added to the environment, this is called pollution. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash. They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories.
A substance that causes pollution is called pollutants. The pollutants can be solid, liquid, or gaseous substances. These can be degradable which is rapidly broken down by natural processes or non-degradable which remains in the environment in an unchanged form for many decades.
there are mainly 6 types of pollution.

Air pollution

Air pollution is the contamination of the air caused by the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to humans and other living organisms or degrade the climate or natural resources. Air pollutants come in a variety of forms, including gases, particulates, and biological molecules.

water pollution

Water pollution occurs when substances contaminate water sources, rendering them unfit for drinking, cooking, cleaning, swimming, and other activities. Chemicals, trash, bacteria, and parasites are all examples of pollutants. All types of pollution eventually find their way into the water supply.

noise pollution

Noise pollution is any disruptive or unwanted noise that disrupts or harms humans or wildlife. Noise pollution is an imperceptible hazard. It cannot be seen, but it exists both on land and beneath the sea. Noise pollution is defined as any undesirable or distressing sound that hurts the health and well-being of humans and other organisms.

land pollution

Land pollution occurs when humans introduce harmful objects, chemicals, or substances into the soil in a way that harms other living things or destroys soil or water ecosystems, either directly or indirectly.

Radioactive pollution

Radioactive pollution is defined as the physical contamination of living organisms and their environments as a result of radioactive substances released into the environment during nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapon production and decommissioning, mining of radioactive ores, handling and disposal of radioactive waste, and nuclear power plant accidents.

these are the main 5 types of pollution.

Air Pollution

Air Pollution | Credit: jcrbaes

Air Pollution (Air pollution in South Africa)

Consider how poor the air quality is in South Africa. According to WHO guidelines, South Africa's air quality is considered moderately unsafe - the most recent data indicate that the country's annual mean PM2.5 concentration is 25g/m3, exceeding the recommended maximum of 10g/m3.

Case /issues

A groundbreaking report has identified the world's largest hotspots of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) air pollution — and the most polluted region is South Africa's Mpumalanga.
Greenpeace South Africa cited a cluster of 12 coal-fired power plants in the area as the "world's most polluting cluster of coal-fired power plants." additionally, these factors contribute to air pollution.

· The Burning of Fossil Fuels.

· Industrial Emission.

· Indoor Air Pollution.

· Wildfires.

· Microbial Decaying Process.

· Transportation.

· Open Burning of Garbage Waste.

· Construction and Demolition.

The mining and agricultural industries, as well as coal combustion, all contribute to South Africa's poor air quality. There are seasonal variations, with elevated levels of air pollution during the dry season (January and February) as a result of forest and savannah fires. Hartebeespoort, Johannesburg, Vereeniging, Mpumalanga, and Sebokeng are cities with consistently high levels of air pollution, according to available data.

Country or city

Mpumalanga highveld cities have the most polluted air, while Standerton, Delmas, eMalahleni (formerly Witbank), Middelburg, Hendrina, and Ermelo have the least polluted air. Ethiopia, Ghana, and South Africa's most polluted countries are Ethiopia and Ghana.

Impacts to environment

South Africa, for example, suffers from respiratory illnesses as a direct result of air pollution, which is extremely costly. 7.4 percent of all deaths in South Africa are estimated to be caused by polluted air, costing the country 6% of its gross domestic product (GDP).
South Africa's air pollution has a variety of negative effects on crops and trees. Reduced agricultural crop and commercial forest yields, decreased growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased plant susceptibility to disease, pests, and other environmental stresses can all be a result of ground-level ozone (such as harsh weather).

Impact on the country

In 2019, Ethiopia lost approximately $318 million (in 2019 international dollars) in output due to air pollution-related disease, Ghana lost $249 million, and Rwanda lost $41 million. These losses, expressed as a percentage of GDP, are 012 percent in Ethiopia, 015 percent in Ghana, and 014 percent in Rwanda.
Economic losses from air pollution-related deaths are proportional to the number of deaths in the country, their age distribution, income (output) per worker, the assumed rate of growth of labor income, and the rate at which it is discounted. The present value of future income lost as a result of air pollution-related death is also contingent on the probability of survival to future ages and labor force participation rates at each age. Ethiopia lost $271 billion in output due to premature death caused by air pollution, Ghana lost $138 billion, and Rwanda lost $308 million. These losses, expressed as a percentage of GDP, are 104 percent in Ethiopia, 080 percent in Ghana, and 105 percent in Rwanda.

Impacts to people

Ambient air pollution caused by fossil fuel combustion is already a factor in premature deaths from pneumonia, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, chronic lung disease, and lung cancer. In 2019, it is estimated that ambient air pollution caused 383, 419 deaths across Africa.

Post actions to address the issue

On the plus side, African countries are in an advantageous position to avoid ambient air pollution. Most are still in their infancy. Except for a few countries, most notably Nigeria, African countries have not yet made significant investments in fossil fuel infrastructure. They thus have an unprecedented opportunity to advance their societies by investing in renewable energy and non-polluting technologies and leapfrogging their societies' heavy reliance on oil and natural gas. African countries can develop sustainably and achieve prosperity by making prudent choices, avoiding the ambient air pollution, disease, and death that have plagued development in countries that have relied on coal, oil, and gas to power economic growth.


Air pollution in South Africa is primarily caused by coal energy plants used for energy generation. The transition to non-polluting renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydropower; reducing reliance on fossil fuels; improving public transportation; and incorporating pollution prevention into all future planning are all promising pollution prevention strategies.

References: Harvard format

[ · UNEP - UN Environment Programme. 2022. Air Pollution and Development in Africa: Impacts on Health, the Economy and Human Capital. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].]

Water Pollution

Water Pollution | Credit: earth

Water Pollution  (Beira lake in Sri Lanka)

The lake's famous green color and unusually foul odor are the results of centuries of pollution and algae in the water. Due to the high rate of evaporation, the foul odor is most noticeable during dry weather and fades away with the arrival of the rainy season.

Beira Lake's water is polluted, giving it an unpleasant odor and a green color. However, in contrast to Colombo's canal system, the lake contains water with an extremely alkaline pH value obtained through primary production and continuous bloom. It reaches its maximum value in August but gradually becomes more neutral from top to bottom, with the pH value decreasing from 10 to 8. Lake water is never acidic.

Case /issues

The lake's famous green color and unusually foul odor are the results of centuries of pollution and algae in the water. Due to the high rates of evaporation, the foul odor is most noticeable during dry weather and fades away with the arrival of the rainy season.

Country or city

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Impacts on the environment, Impact on the country, Impacts on people

The plant community suffers from a variety of deficiencies and diseases as a result of the presence of various bacteria and viruses in the water.
Due to the presence of inorganic toxins, aquatic organisms absorb the toxins.
The growth of various algae as a result of enrichment reduces the amount of space required for aquatic life to grow in the water and creates competition.
Toxic chemicals disrupt various cycles (for example, the water cycle). The strong odor emanating from Beira Lake has a detrimental effect on the tourism industry.
Human beings do not have access to the beauty of Beira Lake, fish farming in Beira Lake, or any of the other benefits associated with that water.

Post actions to address the issue

Water pollution can be controlled through regulation. The United States' 1972 Clean Water Act and 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act both contribute to the protection of surface and groundwater supplies.
It can be used effectively to prevent enrichment by prohibiting garbage dumping in Beira Lake.
By introducing toxins and algae into the aquatic ecosystem, aquatic organisms that consume them can reduce their enrichment.
Disposal of sewage systems in Beira Lake has the potential to significantly reduce odors and toxic effects on aquatic life.
These are the subsequent actions to that incident.


Water pollution degrades critical food sources and contaminates drinking water with chemicals that can be harmful to human health in the short and long term. Additionally, water pollution frequently has a detrimental effect on aquatic ecosystems.

References: Harvard format

[ · Abdullah Al-Bahrani, P., 2022. Using Social Media to Retain and Connect with Students in the Shift to Online Education | Faculty Focus. [online] Faculty Focus | Higher Ed Teaching & Learning. Available at: <> [Accessed 28 April 2022].]

Noise Pollution

Noise Pollution | Credit: adaderana

Noise Pollution (industrial Noise pollution in Tokyo)

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Environmental Protection, where they discussed Tokyo's noise control regulations. The noise level in the 23 wards ranges from 52 to 69 decibels, while it is between 46 and 65 decibels in the suburban city districts.

Case /issues

Despite Japan's international reputation as a country of serene temples and tranquil gardens, a 2018 World Health Organization report found that Japan is the world's noisiest country. Numerous factors contribute to noise in cities: various modes of transport, utilities, appliances and machines both inside and outside buildings, human voice and activities, and the enhancement of sound waves caused by their reflection off of all possible obstacles: the ground, pavements, roads, walls, elements of small architecture, and trees, among others. At times, noise can be amplified by open-air events, large groups of newcomers, or new construction sites, for example. As a result, the noise generated by daily activities can reach unhealthy levels.

Country or city

Tokyo, japan

Impacts on the environment, Impact on the country, Impacts on people

Typically, noise pollution hurts the surrounding environment. Noise pollution has a massive negative impact on the environment and is extremely detrimental to wildlife. According to experts, noise pollution disrupts breeding and rearing cycles and may even hasten the extinction of some species. Noise pollution hurts the normal lives and interactions of animals. As a result, animals become dispersed and the ecological balance is disrupted. Even minor noises can endanger endemic animals.
Additionally, noise pollution hurts the public. Each day, millions of people are affected by noise pollution. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss is the most frequent health problem it causes (NIHL). Loud noise exposure can also result in hypertension, heart disease, insomnia, and stress. These health problems can affect people of all ages, but they are particularly prevalent in children. Additionally, a culture of constant intrusive alerts and warnings, salespeople shouting out deals and background music in stores, thin walls, and seasonal (obnoxiously loud) local election campaigning,

Post actions to address the issue

>. Control noise level near sensitive areas.

>.Setting time limits for the use of sound machines.

>.Limit the use of loud noises and vehicle horns in sensitive areas.

>.Raising public awareness through billboards.

>.Moving from factory people to isolated areas.

these are the post-actions after the noise pollution in Tokyo city in Japan.


Noise pollution is an invisible danger. It cannot be seen, but it is present nonetheless, both on land and under the sea. Noise pollution is considered to be any unwanted or disturbing sound that affects the health and well-being of humans and other organisms. Sound is measured in decibels.

References: Harvard format

[ · UNEP - UN Environment Programme. 2022. Air Pollution and Development in Africa: Impacts on Health, the Economy and Human Capital. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].]

Land Pollution

Land Pollution | Credit: conserve

Land Pollution (nuclear pollution in the land.)

The primary sources of contamination of soil with radioactive pollutants. Contamination of soil with radioactive pollutants is a significant source of risk to the environment, human health, and the economy. Nuclear energy is a significant source of pollution.

Case /issues

• Agricultural Activities – As animal production expands, it becomes decoupled from crop production, severely disrupting normal nutrient cycles between plants, soil, and animals. As a result, synthetic herbicides, insecticides, bactericides, and fertilizers are widely used, all of which contribute to pollution.

• Mining Activities – Mining has the potential to contaminate the air and water supply, harm biodiversity and ecosystems, and alter natural landscapes permanently. Mining is detrimental to the ecosystem because it destroys habitats, contributes to soil erosion, and pollutes surface water, groundwater, and soil.

• Urbanization – Rapid urbanization exacerbates poverty by precluding local governments from providing essential services to all residents. Increased air pollution as a result of concentrated energy use directly impacts human health. The concentration of lead in urban air is increased as a result of automobile emissions.

• Nuclear Accidents From Nuclear Energy Generation Plants.
• The Use of Nuclear Weapons as Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).
• Use of Radioisotopes.
• Spillage of Radioactive Chemicals.
• Tests on Radiation.
• Cosmic Rays and Other Natural Sources.
• Nuclear Waste Handling and Disposal.

Country or city

· Bangladesh

· India

· Pakistan

Impacts on environment, country, and people

Contamination of the land can have far-reaching consequences for the water, soil, and animals. Land pollution can have several negative consequences for the environment and animals, but the following are the top five:

  1. Poisoning of groundwater - Depending on the soil and whether the chemicals were disposed of improperly on the land, the chemicals may end up in the groundwater. This is referred to as leaching. It is a contaminant that can be found on farms, industrial sites, and landfills.
  2. Water nutrient enrichment - Farms frequently use chemicals such as nitrogen. Only a small percentage of nutrients benefit the crops. The remainder typically ends up in water teeming with fish, algae, and other organisms. The nutrient-rich water depletes the oxygen in the water, leaving little oxygen for fish and other life. When this occurs, the water becomes incapable of supporting the majority of lifeforms.
  3. Topsoil loss - As chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used to maintain crops, the composition of the topsoil changes. The soil becomes more permeable to pathogenic fungi and begins to erode. It is critical to conserve our soil to maximize agricultural productivity.
  4. Animals are forced to relocate as a result of deforestation and soil erosion. For some animals, the change is too traumatic, resulting in their death. As a result, certain species are more vulnerable to extinction.
  5. Increased risk of wildfires - The dry conditions created by soil pollutants contribute to the ideal conditions for wildfires. Due to the dry conditions and expanding areas of polluted land, fires can spread quickly.
    Contamination of soil has the potential to cause breathing problems, birth defects, skin diseases, and cancer.
    Economic losses quantifiable as a result of soil pollution include soil productivity loss and crop yield reduction, contamination of food products and loss of marketability, biodiversity loss, and water quality degradation.

Post actions to address the issue

Are the post-actions after addressing this issue. this also helps to decrease prevent land.

• Recycle waste materials.
• Promotion of cleaner production processes.
• Ocean and Coastal Observations.
• Promoting marine protected areas.
• Ban on burning of leaves, biomass, and municipal solid waste.
• Revision of existing environmental standards and formulation of new standards for prevention and control of pollution from industries.

Reference: Harvard format

[· Impulse, S., 2022. Solutions to land pollution: how to improve soil quality?. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].

· BYJUS. 2022. What is Land Pollution? - Causes, Effects & Solutions with Videos. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].

· 2022. Socio-economic impacts of soil pollution. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].

· Conservation Institute. 2022. Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, And Solutions For The Future. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].]

Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive Pollution | Credit: water-pollution

Radioactive Pollution (Hiroshima Nagasaki atomic bomb blast - japan)

Case /issues

During World War II (1939–45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world's first deployed atomic bomb over Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Approximately 80,000 people died instantly in the explosion; tens of thousands more died later from radiation exposure. Three days later, another A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki by a second B-29, killing an estimated 40,000 people. In a radio address on August 15, Japan's Emperor Hirohito announced his country's unconditional surrender to World War II, citing the devastating power of "a new and most cruel bomb."

Country or city

· japan

· Hiroshima

· Nagasaki

that bomb blast mainly give harms Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities and also mainly affected the world.

Impacts on environment, Impact on country

Indeed, it did. The bomb exploded with a yield of approximately 13 kilotons. At the moment of detonation, a fireball erupted, raising temperatures to 4,000 degrees Celsius and transforming Hiroshima – which had many wooden and paper structures – into an inferno. The explosion generated shock waves that traveled faster than the speed of sound. This, combined with the radiation, instantly annihilated everything within a one-kilometer radius of the hypocenter.

A victim of the Hiroshima bomb (AP Photo/The Association of the Photographers of the Atomic (Bomb) Destruction of Hiroshima, Yotsugi Kawahara) | Credit: tastiness

Those who approached ground zero in search of the missing were exposed to radiation following the blast. Black rain, which contained large amounts of radioactive fallout, contaminated a large area. Casualty estimates vary significantly.

The atomic bombing had a wide range of environmental consequences. One of them was the enormous amount of radiation emitted (Energy and Radioactivity, 2006). As with any other atomic bombing, fallout occurred during the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. The Oxford dictionary defines fallout as the process by which radioactive particles are carried into the atmosphere following a nuclear explosion and eventually fall to the ground as dust or precipitation. As a result, dense clouds of radioactive soot and dust began falling from the sky, eventually reaching the ground as hazardous radioactive water. Not only did the black rain cause environmental and infrastructure damage, but it also resulted in radiation poisoning through inhalation and consumption of contaminated food and water (Energy and Radioactivity, 2006). The radiation emitted lasted decades, and many unfortunate victims exposed to high doses of radiation suffered from leukemia and keloids (Energy and Radioactivity, 2006). Contaminated areas with high residual radiation levels remained contagious for an extended period, trapping thousands in lethal infirmity for extended periods.

Impacts to people

The general course of atomic bomb injury can be divided into four stages, as observed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Science Council of Japan, 1951; Glass tone and Dolan, 1977; Ishikawa and Swain, 1981):

1.) initial stage- The greatest number of fatalities occurred immediately following the explosion and continued through the end of the second week; approximately 90% of fatalities occurred during this stage. The majority of those treated for injuries in the days following the explosion complained of burn injuries.

2.) intermediate stage- From the beginning of the third week to the end of the eighth week, numerous moderate injuries caused by radiation were encountered, and the majority of the remaining 10% of fatal cases died. The acute stage of injury was encompassed by the initial and intermediate stages.

3.) late-stage—From the beginning of the third month to the end of the fourth, the majority of injured survivors improved, though a few succumbed to complications. By the fourth month, the majority of those affected by the disasters in both cities had recovered from their acute effects.

After five months, there were a variety of delayed effects: distortions, contractures, and keloids as a result of recovery from burn injuries or mechanical injuries; anemia as a result of radiation-induced bone marrow depression; and disturbances in reproductive functions, such as infertility.

Post actions to address the issue

Hiroshima was rapidly recovering ten years after the war's end. One significant reason was the 1949 Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law. This law stated that Hiroshima, the world's first city to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, should serve as an ambassador for peace. Thus, the national government contributed funds to assist the city in reestablishing itself as a city of peace. In areas of town where shacks had been hurriedly erected for emergency shelter, real houses were constructed, roads were widened, and life began to settle down. The city gradually assumed its new shape and function.


Radioactive pollution can be directly harmful to humans. It is responsible for a plethora of human diseases. Radioactive pollution is a significant hazard to the environment. It could deteriorate significantly further if extreme caution is not exercised in the handling and use of radioactive materials, as well as in the design and operation of nuclear power plants.

References: Harvard format

· 2022. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].

· 2022. Hiroshima Returning to Life. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].

·  HISTORY. 2022. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].

· 2022. 6 and 9 August 1945Hiroshima / Nagasaki: CTBTO Preparatory Commission. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].

· 2022. Environmental Impacts of the Manhattan Project. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 29 April 2022].

Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution | Credit: engineering 

Thermal pollution in India

causes / issues

Nuclear and electric power plants, crude oil refineries, steel melting factories, coal-fired power plants, and industrial boilers all generate significant amounts of heat that affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water bodies. These are the factors that contribute to thermal production and pollution in India.

country or city


impacts on the country, humans, and the environment

Significant temperature increases in the water can wreak havoc on reproduction. Warmer water can have a detrimental effect on the fertility of some organisms. Other species may develop birth defects or lay deformed eggs as a result of chemical changes occurring in their bodies as a result of the warmer water.
Thermal pollution occurs when humans alter the natural temperature regimes of freshwater habitats. Thermal pollution is any deviation from the natural temperature of a habitat. It can range from elevated temperatures caused by industrial cooling activities to cold water discharges into streams beneath large impoundments. Given that ectotherms' metabolic rates are temperature-dependent and that the vast majority of freshwater organisms are ectotherms, thermal pollution can have a significant impact on freshwater communities. Alterations to normal water temperature regimes have a variety of biological consequences, including interfering with temperature cues for spawning fish, facilitating the establishment of exotic species, and altering aquatic organism growth and development. Additionally, because aquatic organisms evolved in relatively thermally buffered environments, they are generally more sensitive to temperature fluctuations than terrestrial organisms.

Although the temperature tolerances of freshwater organisms vary considerably, each species has an optimal range and low and high limits within which it can survive. Temperature increases result in an increase in growth rate up to a point. Damage occurs when a certain threshold is exceeded. Because temperature controls rates at multiple levels of biological organization (e.g., enzymatic reactions to whole-organism metabolism), changes in temperature caused by thermal pollution ultimately affect the rates of ecosystem processes and functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition.

The majority of forms of thermal pollution involve temperature increases, and while the effects of extreme temperature increases are obvious, even small temperature changes can have a significant biological effect. Temperature increases of as little as 1°C–2°C have the potential to alter communities because they are lethal to some species and have a detrimental effect on their growth and reproduction. Raising water temperatures by just 2°C–3°C above the optimal range for certain aquatic insects can significantly reduce the number of eggs produced by females, as more energy is consumed to support higher metabolic rates, leaving less energy available for egg production.

post actions to address the issue

The following are the follow-up actions to this issue.
Artificial lakes: These are man-made bodies of water that may be used to cool power plants. The discharge of warmed effluents at one end of the lake and the withdrawal of cool water at the other end aid in water cooling. Finally, the artificial lake's heat is dissipated via evaporation.
Cooling ponds: This is the simplest and least expensive method of thermal discharge regulation. Maximum heat dissipation to the atmosphere via cooling ponds can be accomplished by minimizing the water area and volume. The technique, on the other hand, is inefficient in terms of air-water contact.
Cooling towers: This technique employs a condenser to cool heated effluents before their return to water bodies. This is the most efficient method, and the towers are well-designed to regulate the temperature of the water. However, the frequent change in local meteorological conditions is a significant issue, as it results in the entry of massive amounts of water vapor into the atmosphere.


Thermal pollution has a negligible effect on water temperature. Even a mild thermal shock, on the other hand, can impair reproduction and reduce disease resistance. Thermal pollution has a detrimental effect on terrestrial systems and, indirectly, on humans. The world has taken some measures to curb thermal pollution, primarily in India and China.


·  Dodds, W., and Whiles, M., 2022. Responses to Stress, Toxic Chemicals, and Other Pollutants in Aquatic Ecosystems.